Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder that causes sustained or un controllable muscle contractions. Incorrect signals from the brain can cause involuntary movement, repetitive twisting or abnormal postures.

There are many different types of dystonia some can start in childhood and some in adult hood. Dystonia can affect one or multiple parts of the body and can be painful. Most dystonia’s do not have a specific cause but seems to be related to a problem in the basal ganglia which is the area of the brain that controls muscle contraction.

Dystonia can affect posture, balance, mobility and activities of daily living. With guidance from therapists at Rope Neuro Rehabilitation education and exercise can improve awareness and control of movement patterns and reduce secondary complications that may result from the dystonia.

For experienced assessment and guidance in treatment of dystonia please contact us and schedule as assessment on 09 623 8433.

Online resources





Bleton J-P, Spasmodic Torticololis. A physiotherapy handbook. 2014, Frison-Roche

Cassidy A pathophysiology of idiopathic focal dystonia ACNR 2010 10 14 – 18

Chan, J. Brin, MF, Fahn, S: Idiopathic cervical dystonia: clinical characteristics. Movement disorders 1991;6(2):119-26

Chronicles of a dystonia muse https://dystoniamuse.com/

Dashtipour K, Lew M. Handbook of Dystonia. 2007: 37-154.

Dystonia foundation organisation – living with dystonia physical therapy resource

Joost van den Dool, et al; Effectiveness of a standardised physical therapy program: study design and protocol of a single blind randomised controlled trial. BMC Neurology December 2013, 13:85

Mueller J, Wissel J Visual biofeedback treatment improves cervical dystonia Department of Neurology, Vivantes Hospital Berlin Spandau, Academic teaching Hospital of the Charité, Berlin

Ostrem Jill L. , MD Diagnostic criteria for cervical dystonia: Can botulinum neurotoxin manage, as well as, cure the problem? Professor of Neurology UCSF Department of Neurology Movement Disorder and Neuromodulation Center Bachmann Strauss Dystonia and Parkinson’s Disease Center of Excellence Dec 2015

Thong, D, Mayank P and Frei K. Living Well with Dystonia. A patient guide. 2010.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

Wolfgang H.Jost et al: Rating scales for cervical dystonia: a critical evaluation of tools for outcome assessment of botulinum toxin therapy, J Neural Transm. 2013 Mar; 120(3): 487–496.

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